ANIMAL HEALTH

How CBD is changing the pet treat industry

Cannabidiol has recently crossed over to the pet market, and revenue is expected to grow to $6.7 billion by the end of the year. Are you watching this, veterinarians?

by Erica Tricarico
From grain-free to organic, pet treat ingredients continually evolve to meet the growing demands of pet owners. This is a trend veterinarians need to follow to stay in touch with clients, even if only to answer the occasional question.

“Pet treats have come a long way in the past 20 years,” says David Sprinkle, research director for market research firm Packaged Facts, in a recent issue of the trade journal Pet Food Processing. Pet store aisles now mirror snack aisles at supermarkets, with many products positioned as being ‘better for your pet.’ “Limited-ingredient products, grain-free options and superfood ingredients are all in high demand, with innovative new product entries hitting the market on a regular basis,” he says.

The increased desire by pet owners to feed their pets “natural” and nutrient-dense treats might explain why the U.S. pet treat market is expected to grow to $6.7 billion in revenue by the end of 2019, a 3.1% increase from 2018, according to Packaged Facts.

One driver of this pet treat growth is, of course, cannabidiol (CBD). Many pet owners are embracing the idea of using CBD to help improve their pet’s overall health and treat a variety of health conditions such as anxiety, digestive issues, chronic pain, mobility issues, inflammation or skin irritation.

Based on a 2019 survey, Packaged Facts reported that 39% of dog owners and 34% of cat owners like the idea of CBD for pets, 29% of both dog and cat owners are interested in purchasing CBD pet supplements, and 11% of dog owners and 8% of cat owners have already given CBD or hemp treats to their pets.

“CBD supplements are in high demand in human markets, credited with treating conditions ranging from anxiety to asthma. The use of CBD has crossed over into the pet market, with usage spiking after the passage of the most recent Farm Bill in December 2018, which took a significant step towards separating hemp and hemp-derived CBD from marijuana-based products,” Sprinkle told Pet Food Processing.

Although the FDA has approved one cannabis-derived and three cannabis-related drugs for use in humans (with a prescription), it has not approved hemp-derived substances for use in animals. Currently, no CBD products can be  marketed legally for animal consumption. As a result, animal and pet food companies interested in using hemp or CBD in tHeir products have been advised to proceed with caution.

Source: VeterinaryNews.DVM360.com

CBD Oil for Dogs: What You Need to Know

by Randa Kriss
As with any pet wellness trend, when it comes to CBD oil for dogs, there’s a lot of information floating around online. Of course, you want to do what’s best for your pup, which leads to the question: What do I need to know about CBD oil?

The AKC’s Chief Veterinary Officer, Dr. Jerry Klein, explains what CBD oil is, what it does, and its safety concerns and side effects.

What Is CBD Oil?

CBD, or cannabidiol, is a compound found in cannabis and hemp. Dr. Klein says it is essential to note that in most cases, CBD does not contain delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the compound that gives marijuana its psychoactive properties. In fact, most CBD products are derived from hemp and not from marijuana.

How Does CBD Affect Dogs?

Currently, there has been no formal study on how CBD affects dogs. What scientists do know is that cannabinoids interact with the endocannabinoid receptors located in the central and peripheral nervous systems, which help maintain balance in the body and keep it in a normal healthy state.

What Dog Health Problems Can CBD Oil Treat?

While there’s no definitive scientific data on using CBD to treat dogs, there’s anecdotal evidence from dog owners suggesting it can treat pain, especially neuropathic pain, as well as helping to control seizures.

According to Dr. Klein, CBD is also used because of its anti-inflammatory properties, cardiac benefits, anti-nausea effects, appetite stimulation, anti-anxiety impact, and for possible anti-cancer benefits, although there’s no conclusive data on this use.

The AKC Canine Health Foundation (CHF) is sponsoring a study, through the Colorado State University’s College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, that will evaluate the use of CBD in treatment-resistant epileptic dogs. The CHF hopes that this will be the first study to gain scientific data on the use of CBD in dogs with this condition

VIDEO: "Ask The Expert" - American Kennel Club

Possible Side Effects of CBD in Dogs

While there’s no scientific data on the side effects of CBD usage for dogs, there are potential side effects based on how CBD affects humans. To minimize any potential side effects, make sure you are following the proper dosage.

  • Dry mouth: Research has shown that CBD can decrease the production of saliva. For dogs, this would manifest as an increased thirst.
  • Lowered blood pressure: High doses of CBD have been known to cause a temporary drop in blood pressure. Even though the drop is small, it might create a brief feeling of light-headedness.
  • Drowsiness: Dog owners have used CBD to treat anxiety. The calming effect of CBD can also cause slight drowsiness, especially when using higher doses.

Risks of Using CBD Oil for Dogs

The safety and risks of using CBD for dogs have not yet been researched. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has not approved CBD and has not issued a dosing chart. Therefore, we do not know what size dosage would be toxic. Any medication or supplement carries the risk of a reaction. It is always advisable, when giving your dog something new, to start out with small amounts and then closely monitor the effects. And always check with your veterinarian first.

CBD Products on the Market

If you and your veterinarian decide that you should try CBD as a treatment for your dog, there are a few things to keep in mind when purchasing CBD oil. Not all oils are the same; you’ll want high-quality CBD oil to have a better chance of it working.

  • Look for organic. If the CBD oil is not organic, it at least should not contain pesticides, fungicides, or solvents.
  • Don’t price shop. The higher the quality and purity, the higher the cost. You don’t want to go for a cheaper option that could have toxic substances such as pesticides, herbicides, or heavy metals. Make sure your CBD oil is free of additives.
  • Get the analysis. The manufacturer should provide a certificate that tells you the amount of CBD that is in the product. Many CBD products contain only small amounts of CBD. You’ll also want to make sure there is little or no THC in the product.
  • Buy CBD as a liquid. You can buy dog treats containing CBD, but the best form to administer is an oil or tincture. This way, you can adjust your dog’s dose drop by drop.
  •  

The CBD Wellness Trend

Why are we hearing so much about CBD oil now? Dr. Klein points to the legalization of marijuana in many places, which has triggered interest in potential health benefits of marijuana-related products. “We are likely to see continued interest in CBD and an increase in research about its uses and efficacy in the coming years,” he says.

Learn more about the CBD study funded by the Canine Health Foundation.

Innovet created a product line of full spectrum pure hemp oils void of dangerous compounds. Their USDA certified organic oil is formulated especially for animals and is also third-party tested to ensure consistency and purity. Innovet offers more than 50 affordable products to help pets manage anxiety, pain, as well as other conditions. Get more information about Innovet’s CBD products.

Source: AMERICAN KENNEL CLUB

Cannabidiol (CBD) and horses: What is it good for?

photo: Cheryl Green

by Juliet M Getty
CBD. Whether you’re already using it, you’re thinking about it, or just plain never heard of it, it’s worth getting more familiar with. No, it is not the latest “snake oil” touting cures from hair loss to ingrown toenails. Instead, it is chemical messenger in the “endocannabinoid system”, a natural and crucial part of the body. Research on this system is extensive, with years of examination and hundreds of studies.

Chester is my 22-year-old horse. He suffers from arthritis in his hocks and knees and is now moving with much greater ease. Clients who have decided to try CBD for their horses have offered very positive feedback. Inflammatory conditions, such as arthritis and ulcerations are showing improvement, as well as pain relief from laminitis. Horses with anxiety or “sensitive” behavior, have a more relaxed demeanor. And, metabolic conditions may be potentially alleviated, which is quite exciting. While it’s too soon to tell if leptin and insulin levels are declining from CBD treatment, there have been studies showing how CBD reduces insulin resistance and obesity2, as well as appetite, in people with type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome.3

What is CBD and is it marijuana?

CBD is short for “cannabidiol”, one of more than 80 different cannabinoids found in the cannabis plant. CBD and THC are the two most studied, and this is where many misunderstandings stem from.

Cannabis sativa L. (genus, species, and subspecies) is the “umbrella term” for the plants known as hemp and marijuana. Marijuana is particularly high in THC, the cannabinoid that creates a psychoactive “high.” CBD, on the other hand, does not create this effect.

Hemp-derived CBD is not marijuana. 

Although both hemp and marijuana belong to the Cannabis genus, their genetic composition distinguishes them to produce vastly different amounts of THC. Hemp-derived CBD is high in CBD and very low in THC (less than 0.3%).

Though hemp-derived CBD is legal in all 50 US states, thanks to the passing of the 2018 Farm Bill4, federal law does not preempt state law, and there are still some restrictions within various states5. Just as many cities throughout the country prohibit alcohol sales, there are local and state laws that restrict industrial hemp products. But bottom line, it is legal to purchase and consume hemp-derived CBD products. The FDA6 does not regulate it so it behooves you to choose a reputable company that is willing to disclose the source, extraction method, and analysis of their products.

What is the endocannabinoid system?

The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a major signaling system that exists in you and your animals. It continually monitors any instability within the body and returns it to a state of balance or homeostasis so that the internal environment remains stable.

CBD and other cannabinoids are compounds that activate this system. Cannabinoids, both naturally produced by the body (endogenous), and those supplemented from cannabis (exogenous), act as “keys” to these receptors, turning on a variety of functions.

Within the ECS there are two main cell receptors — CB1 and CB2:

  • CB1 receptors exist mainly in the brain and central nervous system. They impact areas such as appetite regulation, memory, emotions, and feelings of pain.
  • CB2 receptors are concentrated in the gastrointestinal tract and peripheral nervous system (nerve cells outside the brain and spinal cord) and modulate immune cell functions. When activated, they help reduce inflammation.

Endogenous cannabinoids are produced when the body signals that they are required, but are quickly degraded. Offering CBD (exogenous cannabinoid) allows the ECS to work harder and be more productive to help us and our animals deal with health issues such as:

  • Anxiety and depression7
  • Insomnia8
  • Pain and inflammation9
  • obesity/increased appetite/leptin resistance10,11
  • Metabolic syndrome/insulin resistance12
  • Immune deficiencies and autoimmune diseases13
  • Digestive disturbances/ulcers/colitis14

Side effects

CBD has a favorable safety profile15. If overdosed, it can have some mild effects. These can include drowsiness, decreased blood pressure, dizziness, fatigue, and diarrhea. If you or your animals experience any of these, you can cut back on the dosage. Long-term use appears to be safe, though further research is needed.

LET’S TALK HORSES

As of this date, there are few, if any, research studies that use horses as subjects. But I expect this will quickly change as more and more companies are selling CBD for equine consumption. In the meantime, anecdotal responses are highly favorable. From first-hand accounts of horse owners, hemp-derived CBD appears to stimulate the horse’s ECS in the same way it does yours. It is well tolerated, without any euphoric or adverse effects. Specific health conditions that CBD may improve, based on currently available studies with humans and laboratory animals include:

  • Pain17 from arthritis18 or laminitis
  • Anxiety during stall confinement19
  • Stress during traveling and shows20
  • Ulcers and leaky gut21
  • Healing from surgery or injury22
  • Immune system depression from oxidative stress23 experienced with Cushing’s disease
  • Appetite regulation24
  • Obesity25
  • Inflammation, with the potential to reduce leptin levels26
  • Insulin resistance23

Horse competition rules and testing

The FEI and the United States Equestrian Federation (USEF) have strict rules regarding medicating horses before events. Recently, the USEF announced that as of September 1, 2019, positive test results for cannabinoids will incur violations.

Since it is THC that is detectable by a blood or urine test, it is highly unlikely for a positive test result to occur since hemp-derived CBD contains only minute amounts of THC. Nonetheless, it is possible, so it is best to discontinue its use 7 to 10 days before an event. Even if you choose a CBD isolate or broad-spectrum product (which does not contain any THC), it is best to err on the side of caution by stopping before an event.

Choose a safe, quality product

First, know where the hemp was grown. Choose products grown in the US or Canada. If it was grown overseas with potentially relaxed growing standards, it could be contaminated with chemicals, bacteria, and heavy metals that put your health at risk.

To ensure a clean, safe product, it is best to buy CBD that has been tested and offers a Certificate of Analysis (COA) posted on the company’s website This document shows how the company meets and adheres to product specifications and standards of production.

Some other things to pay attention to with CBD products:

  • Check the label for accurate CBD content per dose.
  • Choose a product from an organic source.
  • Look for percentage of THC on a provided COA.

CBD isolate, full-spectrum, or broad-spectrum?

CBD isolate means that the product contains only CBD with no other naturally occurring cannabinoids, including THC. That also means that other substances that are found in the plant, such as terpenes and flavonoids, have been fully extracted.

If you are undergoing a drug test for a job, it is best to use the isolate, or stop your usage of the full-spectrum product a week or two before the test.

Full-spectrum is a whole plant CBD, meaning that it contains CBD and other cannabinoids (less than 0.3% THC), as well as terpenes, flavonoids, and active essential oils.

Broad-spectrum products also contain the whole plant compounds like full-spectrum, but the THC has been removed.

The “entourage effect”. It used to be thought that CBD isolate was the best approach. But it is now better understood that the cannabinoids and plant compounds found in full-spectrum and broad-spectum CBD create a synergism where they work together to complement each other, offering a greater impact on health conditions.

It’s important to note that dogs and cats can benefit from hemp-derived full-spectrum CBD, even though they cannot tolerate THC from marijuana. The tiny amount of THC found in this product is safe may further increase the entourage effect.

Why is it so expensive? 

It takes a lot of hemp plants to create a CBD oil (tincture). Products called “hemp oil” are not necessarily concentrated with CBD. Hempseed oil is a nutritious oil, high in essential fatty acids, but it is not a good source of CBD. Before you buy, read the label carefully to determine just how much CBD exists in the product.

 What extraction method is best?

When researching a CBD product for you and your animals, it is best to know the extraction method used to remove CBD from the plant. Going through each method is beyond the scope of this article, but the approach that is most complete and the cleanest is a CO2 extraction. It uses carbon dioxide (CO2) to extract CBD from the plant to create products that are pure and very powerful.

How much CBD is in one dose?

The label should provide you with the amount of CBD per dose. But it can be confusing.

When using a CBD tincture, you should see the number of mgs of CBD in the full bottle. Some products can be very diluted, so be sure the manufacturer’s label is detailed and specific.Many tinctures will offer directions by the “dropper-full.” But getting a full dropper is not always possible or can be inaccurate. The best approach is to first determine the amount of CBD in each drop. By knowing how many mgs are in each drop, you can accurately dispense the desired dosage. 

To do this, you need to know these three things:

  • There are 30ml of oil in a typical CBD tincture bottle,
  • A full dropper-full is 1ml, and
  • There are 20 drops in a ml

Two examples:

 1.     CBD tincture that offer 2500mg of CBD in the entire 30ml bottle:

  • Divide 2500 by 30 to get the number of mg per dropper-full (1ml). This calculates to be 83.3mg of CBD in 1ml
  • Divide 83.3 by 20 to give you the level of CBD per drop. This calculates to be about 4mg per drop.

2.     CBD tincture for pets that offers 250mg of CBD in the entire 30ml bottle:

  • 250 divided by 30 = 8.3mg of CBD in one dropper-full (1ml)
  • 8.3 divided by 20 = .42mg (slightly less than ½mg) of CBD per drop

Other forms of CBD such as pellets, gummies, capsules, and topicals should offer specific amounts of CBD per dose.

 What is the best dosage?

Dosages are weight dependent and based on the severity of the situation. It is best to start slowly, and then increase the dose as needed. A little trial and error is necessary to find the right dose that is best for you or your animals. Keep in mind that it takes about 2 weeks for the body to experience relief and will continue to improve over time.

Dosage recommendations are not standardized. However, through research studies and applications, here are generalized daily guidelines. I have found that dividing the dose into two servings is better than administering once daily.

  • Pets:
  • Under 25lbs: 10mg
  • 25 to 75lbs: 10 to 20mg
  • 75 or more lbs: 20-40mg
  • People:
  • Less than 100lbs: 20 to 40mg
  • 100 to 174lbs: 30 to 60mg
  • Over 175lbs: 60 to 90mg
  • Horses:
  • Minis: 25 to 50mg
  • Full sized (1100lbs): 75 to 170mg
  • Large breeds: 120 to 200mg

How to administer CBD

There are several ways to provide CBD:

  • Sublingual: Placing the drops under the tongue and holding them there for 30 seconds provides good bioavailability and kicks in quickly. This is difficult to do for animals and is not recommended since most droppers are made of glass and can cause injury if bitten.
  • Oral: Adding CBD to food, swallowing a CBD capsule, or chewing a CBD gummy, will take the longest time for the effects to become apparent, but this method is longer lasting than under the tongue. Pellets (typically available for animals) that are extruded are better absorbed than pellets that use binders, providing improved bioavailability and hence, lower effective dosing27.
  • Pulmonary: CBD vapes are available. While this has the highest bioavailability, it has the shortest duration of action. I typically do no recommend this for people with any respiratory conditions, since it could be potentially harmful.
  • Topical: CBD is absorbed well into the skin and is beneficial for targeted areas28.

Bottom line
Even though experts have been studying for decades the benefits of CBD, there is still research that needs to be done, especially for horses. Nevertheless, the outcome thus far is encouraging, revealing long-reaching benefits on the natural endocannabinoid system, providing relief from mental and physical ailments that affect us, our families, and our animals.

Source: HORSE TALK

References

[1] Kogan, L., Schoenfeld-Tacher, R., Hellyer, P., and Rishniw, M., 2018. US veterinarians’ knowledge, experience, and perception regarding the use of cannabidiol for canine medical conditions. Frontiers of Veterinary Science, volume 10.
[2] Parray, H.A., and Yun, J.W., 2016. Cannabidiol promotes browning in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, volume 416, number 1-2, 131-139.
[3] Tarragon, E., and Moreno, J.J., 2019. Cannabinoids, chemical senses, and regulation of feeding behavior. Chemical Senses, Vol 44, pages 73-89.
[4] Everything you need to know about the 2018 Farm Bill (updated): http://bit.ly/2XhZuiI
[5] Is CBD oil legal in all 50 states? http://bit.ly/321o5M9
[6] FDA regulations of cannabis and cannabis-derived products. http://bit.ly/2JezpvH
[7] De Gregorio, D., McLaughlin, R.J., Posa, L., et al., 2019. Cannabidiol modulates serotonergic transmission and reverses both allodynia and anxiety-like behavior in a model of neuropathic pain. Pain, volume 160, number 1, 136-150.
[8] Maple, K.E., McDaniel, K.A., Shollenbarger, S.G., and Lisdahl, K.M., 2017. Dose-dependent cannabis use, depressive symptoms, and FAAH genotype predict sleep quality in emerging adults: A pilot study. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, volume 42, number 4, 431-440.
[9] Hammell, D.C., Zhang, L.P., Ma, F., Abshire, S.M., et al., 2015. Transdermal cannabidiol reduces inflammation and pain-related behaviors in rat model of arthritis. European Journal of Pain, Vol 20, Number 6.
[10] Kunos, G., Osei-Hyiaman, D., Liu, J., et al., 2008. Endocannabinoids and the control of energy homeostasis. Journal of Biological Chemistry, volume 283, number 48, 33021-33025.
[11] Rossi, F., Punzo, F., Umano, G.R., et al., 2018. Role of cannabinoids in obesity. International Journal of Molecular Science, volume 19, number 9.
[12] Mastinu, A., Premoli, M., Ferrari-Toninelli, G., et. al., 2018. Cannabinoids in health and disease: Pharmacological potential in metabolic syndrome and neuroinflammation. Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation, Vol 36, Number 2.
[13] Zgair, A., Lee, J.B., Wong, J.C.M., et al., 2017. Oral administration of cannabis with lipids leads to high levels of cannabinoids in the intestinal lymphatic system and prominent immunomodulation. Scientific Reports.
[14] Irving, P.M., Iqbal, T., Nwokolo, C., et al., 2018. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, pilot study of cannabidiol-rich botanical extract in the symptomatic treatment of ulcerative colitis. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, Vol 24, Number 4.
[15] Iffland, K., and Grotenhermen, F., 2017. An update on safety and side effects of cannabidiol: A review of clinical data and relevant animal studies. Cannabis Cannabinoid Research, volume 2, number 1, 139-154.
[16] Medical cannabis – adverse effects and drug reactions. http://bit.ly/2Xcq6BE
[17] Cannabidiol: A new option for patients in pain? DVM360, September 2017, p 32-33.
[18] Malaita, A.M., Gallily, R., Sumariwalla, P.F., et al., 2000. The nonpsychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an oral anti-arthritic therapeutic in murine collagen-induced arthritis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA.
[19] Maroon, J., and Bost, J., 2018. Review of the neurological benefits of phytocannabinoids. Surgical Neurology International, volume 9.
[20] Campos, A.C., Moreira, F.A., Gomes, F.V., et al., 2012. Multiple mechanisms involved in the large-spectrum therapeutic potential of cannabidiol in psychiatric disorders. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society London Series B Biological Science, volume 367, number 1607, pages 3364-3378.
[21] Couch, D.G., Cook, H., Ortori, C, et.al., 2019. Palmitoylethanolamide and cannabidiol prevent inflammation-induced hyperpermeability of the human gut in vitro and in vivo – A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind controlled trial. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, Vol 25, Number 6.
[22] Styrczewska, M., Kostyn, A, Kulma, A., et al., 2015. Flax fiber hydrophobic extract inhibits human skin cells inflammation and causes remodeling of extracellular matrix and wound closure activation. Biomedical Research International.
[23] Booz, G.W., 2012., Cannabidiol as an emergent therapeutic strategy for lessening the impact of inflammation on oxidative stress. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, volume 5, number 5.
[24] Garamond, J.A., Whalley, B.J., and Williams, C.M., 2012. Cannabinol and cannabidiol exert opposing effects on rat feeding patterns. Psychopharmacology, volume 223, number 1, 117-129.
[25] Ignatowska-Jankowska, B., Jankowski, M.M., and Swiergiel, A.H., 2011. Cannabidiol decreases body weight gain in rats: Involvement of CB2 receptors. Neuroscience Letters, 490, 82-84.
[26] Tarragon, E., and Moreno, J.J., 2019. Cannabinoids, chemical senses, and regulation of feeding behavior. Chemical Senses, Vol 44, pages 73-89.
[27] Forefront Equine makes an excellent extruded CBD pellet without THC. Available on Dr. Getty’s Free Shipping Store: http://bit.ly/2KOL7Al
[28] Hammell, D.C., Zhang, L.P., Ma, F., Abshire, S.M., et al., 2015. Transdermal cannabidiol reduces inflammation and pain-related behaviors in rat model of arthritis. European Journal of Pain, Vol 20, Number 6.